GeographicLib  1.49
GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic Class Reference

Spherical harmonic series. More...

#include <GeographicLib/SphericalHarmonic.hpp>

## Public Types

enum  normalization { FULL, SCHMIDT }

## Public Member Functions

SphericalHarmonic (const std::vector< real > &C, const std::vector< real > &S, int N, real a, unsigned norm=FULL)

SphericalHarmonic (const std::vector< real > &C, const std::vector< real > &S, int N, int nmx, int mmx, real a, unsigned norm=FULL)

SphericalHarmonic ()

Math::real operator() (real x, real y, real z) const

CircularEngine Circle (real p, real z, bool gradp) const

const SphericalEngine::coeffCoefficients () const

## Detailed Description

Spherical harmonic series.

This class evaluates the spherical harmonic sum

V(x, y, z) = sum(n = 0..N)[ q^(n+1) * sum(m = 0..n)[
(C[n,m] * cos(m*lambda) + S[n,m] * sin(m*lambda)) *
P[n,m](cos(theta)) ] ]


where

• p2 = x2 + y2,
• r2 = p2 + z2,
• q = a/r,
• θ = atan2(p, z) = the spherical colatitude,
• λ = atan2(y, x) = the longitude.
• Pnm(t) is the associated Legendre polynomial of degree n and order m.

Two normalizations are supported for Pnm

Clenshaw summation is used for the sums over both n and m. This allows the computation to be carried out without the need for any temporary arrays. See SphericalEngine.cpp for more information on the implementation.

References:

Example of use:

// Example of using the GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic class
#include <iostream>
#include <exception>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;
using namespace GeographicLib;
int main() {
try {
int N = 3; // The maxium degree
double ca[] = {10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1}; // cosine coefficients
vector<double> C(ca, ca + (N + 1) * (N + 2) / 2);
double sa[] = {6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1}; // sine coefficients
vector<double> S(sa, sa + N * (N + 1) / 2);
double a = 1;
SphericalHarmonic h(C, S, N, a);
double x = 2, y = 3, z = 1;
double v, vx, vy, vz;
v = h(x, y, z, vx, vy, vz);
cout << v << " " << vx << " " << vy << " " << vz << "\n";
}
catch (const exception& e) {
cerr << "Caught exception: " << e.what() << "\n";
return 1;
}
}

Definition at line 69 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ normalization

Supported normalizations for the associated Legendre polynomials.

Enumerator
FULL

Fully normalized associated Legendre polynomials.

These are defined by Pnmfull(z) = (−1)m sqrt(k (2n + 1) (nm)! / (n + m)!) Pnm(z), where Pnm(z) is Ferrers function (also known as the Legendre function on the cut or the associated Legendre polynomial) http://dlmf.nist.gov/14.7.E10 and k = 1 for m = 0 and k = 2 otherwise.

The mean squared value of Pnmfull(cosθ) cos(mλ) and Pnmfull(cosθ) sin(mλ) over the sphere is 1.

SCHMIDT

Schmidt semi-normalized associated Legendre polynomials.

These are defined by Pnmschmidt(z) = (−1)m sqrt(k (nm)! / (n + m)!) Pnm(z), where Pnm(z) is Ferrers function (also known as the Legendre function on the cut or the associated Legendre polynomial) http://dlmf.nist.gov/14.7.E10 and k = 1 for m = 0 and k = 2 otherwise.

The mean squared value of Pnmschmidt(cosθ) cos(mλ) and Pnmschmidt(cosθ) sin(mλ) over the sphere is 1/(2n + 1).

Definition at line 74 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ SphericalHarmonic() [1/3]

 GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::SphericalHarmonic ( const std::vector< real > & C, const std::vector< real > & S, int N, real a, unsigned norm = FULL )
inline

Constructor with a full set of coefficients specified.

Parameters
 [in] C the coefficients Cnm. [in] S the coefficients Snm. [in] N the maximum degree and order of the sum [in] a the reference radius appearing in the definition of the sum. [in] norm the normalization for the associated Legendre polynomials, either SphericalHarmonic::FULL (the default) or SphericalHarmonic::SCHMIDT.
Exceptions
 GeographicErr if N does not satisfy N ≥ −1. GeographicErr if C or S is not big enough to hold the coefficients.

The coefficients Cnm and Snm are stored in the one-dimensional vectors C and S which must contain (N + 1)(N + 2)/2 and N (N + 1)/2 elements, respectively, stored in "column-major" order. Thus for N = 3, the order would be: C00, C10, C20, C30, C11, C21, C31, C22, C32, C33. In general the (n,m) element is at index m Nm (m − 1)/2 + n. The layout of S is the same except that the first column is omitted (since the m = 0 terms never contribute to the sum) and the 0th element is S11

The class stores pointers to the first elements of C and S. These arrays should not be altered or destroyed during the lifetime of a SphericalHarmonic object.

Definition at line 167 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ SphericalHarmonic() [2/3]

 GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::SphericalHarmonic ( const std::vector< real > & C, const std::vector< real > & S, int N, int nmx, int mmx, real a, unsigned norm = FULL )
inline

Constructor with a subset of coefficients specified.

Parameters
 [in] C the coefficients Cnm. [in] S the coefficients Snm. [in] N the degree used to determine the layout of C and S. [in] nmx the maximum degree used in the sum. The sum over n is from 0 thru nmx. [in] mmx the maximum order used in the sum. The sum over m is from 0 thru min(n, mmx). [in] a the reference radius appearing in the definition of the sum. [in] norm the normalization for the associated Legendre polynomials, either SphericalHarmonic::FULL (the default) or SphericalHarmonic::SCHMIDT.
Exceptions
 GeographicErr if N, nmx, and mmx do not satisfy N ≥ nmx ≥ mmx ≥ −1. GeographicErr if C or S is not big enough to hold the coefficients.

The class stores pointers to the first elements of C and S. These arrays should not be altered or destroyed during the lifetime of a SphericalHarmonic object.

Definition at line 198 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ SphericalHarmonic() [3/3]

 GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::SphericalHarmonic ( )
inline

A default constructor so that the object can be created when the constructor for another object is initialized. This default object can then be reset with the default copy assignment operator.

Definition at line 211 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ operator()() [1/2]

 Math::real GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::operator() ( real x, real y, real z ) const
inline

Compute the spherical harmonic sum.

Parameters
 [in] x cartesian coordinate. [in] y cartesian coordinate. [in] z cartesian coordinate.
Returns
V the spherical harmonic sum.

This routine requires constant memory and thus never throws an exception.

Definition at line 224 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ operator()() [2/2]

 Math::real GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::operator() ( real x, real y, real z, real & gradx, real & grady, real & gradz ) const
inline

Compute a spherical harmonic sum and its gradient.

Parameters
Returns
V the spherical harmonic sum.

This is the same as the previous function, except that the components of the gradients of the sum in the x, y, and z directions are computed. This routine requires constant memory and thus never throws an exception.

Definition at line 257 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

## ◆ Circle()

 CircularEngine GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::Circle ( real p, real z, bool gradp ) const
inline

Create a CircularEngine to allow the efficient evaluation of several points on a circle of latitude.

Parameters
 [in] p the radius of the circle. [in] z the height of the circle above the equatorial plane. [in] gradp if true the returned object will be able to compute the gradient of the sum.
Exceptions
 std::bad_alloc if the memory for the CircularEngine can't be allocated.
Returns
the CircularEngine object.

SphericalHarmonic::operator()() exchanges the order of the sums in the definition, i.e., ∑n = 0..Nm = 0..n becomes ∑m = 0..Nn = m..N. SphericalHarmonic::Circle performs the inner sum over degree n (which entails about N2 operations). Calling CircularEngine::operator()() on the returned object performs the outer sum over the order m (about N operations).

Here's an example of computing the spherical sum at a sequence of longitudes without using a CircularEngine object

SphericalHarmonic h(...); // Create the SphericalHarmonic object
double r = 2, lat = 33, lon0 = 44, dlon = 0.01;
double
phi = lat * Math::degree<double>(),
z = r * sin(phi), p = r * cos(phi);
for (int i = 0; i <= 100; ++i) {
lon = lon0 + i * dlon,
lam = lon * Math::degree<double>();
std::cout << lon << " " << h(p * cos(lam), p * sin(lam), z) << "\n";
}

Here is the same calculation done using a CircularEngine object. This will be about N/2 times faster.

SphericalHarmonic h(...); // Create the SphericalHarmonic object
double r = 2, lat = 33, lon0 = 44, dlon = 0.01;
double
phi = lat * Math::degree<double>(),
z = r * sin(phi), p = r * cos(phi);
CircularEngine c(h(p, z, false)); // Create the CircularEngine object
for (int i = 0; i <= 100; ++i) {
lon = lon0 + i * dlon;
std::cout << lon << " " << c(lon) << "\n";
}

Definition at line 324 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

Referenced by GeographicLib::GravityModel::Circle().

## ◆ Coefficients()

 const SphericalEngine::coeff& GeographicLib::SphericalHarmonic::Coefficients ( ) const
inline
Returns
the zeroth SphericalEngine::coeff object.

Definition at line 348 of file SphericalHarmonic.hpp.

Referenced by GeographicLib::GravityModel::GravityModel().

The documentation for this class was generated from the following file: